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The village of Hampton, Va., near Fort Monroe was burned by Confederate forces under Brig. Gen. John Bankhead Magruder in operations against Butler’s Federal forces. Magruder said he had learned Butler had intended to use the town for what he called “runaway slaves” and what Butler called “contraband.” Butler claimed the few residents remaining were given fifteen minutes to leave and that it was a “wanton act.”

Federal authorities ordered the construction of seven special ironclad gunboats of a new type from James B. Eads of St. Louis for operation on western waters. These, along with some converted steamers, were to become the backbone of the Union river flotilla.

Aug. 7-10 there was a small Federal expedition from Cape Girardeau, operating Pierce’s Landing, Commerce, Benton, and Hamburg, Mo.

— E.B. Long with Barbara Long, The Civil War Day By Day Almanac: 1861-1865 (Doubleday & Co., 1971)

see HiLoBrow.com for more on Robert Penn Warren’s novel, and Raoul Walsh’s film Band of Angels.

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